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PIG MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP – LADANGI VENTURES

PIG MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP

PIG MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP
March 28, 2020 No Comments Uncategorized admin

THEME:
SUBSTAINABLE PIG MANAGEMENT FOR JOB CREATION AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION.

Introduction:
Kaduna state stand out as the state with largest pig market, the pig market which is located at Kafancha southern part of the state attracts various buyers from other states of the country most especially the southern and western part of the country.
Research has shown that the pig markets in the state and other daily pig demands are far from been saturated for an obvious reasons, such as;
Failure of the pig farmers to increase over the years comparatively with the monogastric farmers like Poultry production that has continuously be on an increase over the year.
Inadequate awareness of the pig profitability
Lack of modern profitable pig management techniques
Availability of improved breeder stock
Starting Capital
Partial acceptability as a result of region and cultural believes
And other inherent challenges.
In spite of the above mention challenges, pig production remains one of the livestock farming that any interested investor/farmer can easily break an even for a very clear known facts such as,
The skill requirement is less complex compare with other livestock farming
The starting capital in minimal when compare with other livestock large scale farming
The space requirements is moderate
The staff requirement is less complex, mostly unskilled labour
Less complex disease problems
Ability to adapt and do well on various large range of feeds
The gestation period is very short (150 days to 155 days)
Large litter size (10 to 16 litter size per farrow) etc.
High level of adaptability to the environment
Marketable age (Maturity age) is very low compare to other large animal. ( Seven to Nine Months)
Quick Look on Pig Productivity;
Starting a pig farm depend on the available cash, available structural facilities and the farmer projection. Nevertheless is advisable to start with a sorted and monitor breeder gilts from a reputable pig farm. It also recommended that a boar ratio to sow should be between one Boar (Mature Male Pig) to five gilts (Mature Female Pig} and at maximum one boar to ten gilts.
For projection sake, the serving boar to gilts ratio be at 1:5
After mating the gilts required Three Months, three weeks and three days to farrow; with an average estimated litter size of eight piglet per gilt given a total of Forty piglets (40 piglets) at first farrow.

The Piglets were to be weaned at the expected age of two months old and places on creeps feed.

The mother pigs after weaning were to rest for a period of one month before re-mating and have the second set of the piglets after six months of the first farrow at maintained project litter size of 40 piglets.

The implies that in an approximately twelve (12) months of production cycle (Approximately, 4 months for the first gestation, 2 months of Nursing, 1 month of resting, another 1 month for mating and 4 Months of the second gestation period). A boar and five gilts starter stock have produced 80 piglets.

The starter stocks will be re-mated after nursing the second farrow set for 2 months rested for a month allowed mating at the 16th Months and farrow the third set at 20th month of the production cycle at same projected litter size of eight piglets per sow which give 40 piglets at the third cycle.

At the 12th month of the production cycle, the first set of the starter stock will be 8th month old and are ready for mating.

At the 16th month of the production cycle the first set will are expected to have their first farrow generation.

At projection of minimum of 10 sorted gilts from the pool of 40 piglets give the farmer a total of 80 piglets litter size.

Summarily, at the 20th months of production cycle, the total stock stand at (6 Starter Stock +40 first farrow + 40 Second farrow 80 F1 farrow + 40 Third Farrow) = 206 pigs

Table 1
S/N
DISCRIPTION
QUANTITIES
WIGHT IN (KG)
VALUE IN NAIRA #600/KG
TOTAL IN NAIRA

1
Starter Males
1
80
400.00
32,000.00

2
Starter Females
5
75
400.00
150,000.00

3
First set males
20
70
400.00
560,000.00

4
First set Females
20
65
400.00
520,000.00

5
Second set males (8 month old as at 22th Month of farm Production cycle)
20
55
400.00
440,000.00

6
Second set Females (5 month old as at 22th Month of farm Production cycle)
20
50
400.00
400,000.00

7
Piglets from the First set Litter ( 6 month old at 22th Month of the farm Production cycle)
20
45
400.00
360,000.00

8
Third set males weaned at 22 Months
20
40
400.00
320,000.00

9
Third set Females weaned at 22 months
80
20
400.00
640,000.00

 
Total Number of Pigs on the farm as at 20th Month of the farm production cycle
206
Value in Naira
3,422,000.00

The above shows, with total number of five female pigs and an active male boar in twenty two months the farm is expected to have a total number of 206 pigs values at #3,422,000 with a projection of #400/Kg of live body weight of the pig.

Production cost estimate

Table 2 below, is the estimated cost needed for the period of twenty two months of which the income is estimated above.

Table 2
S/N
Item
Descriptions
Quantities
Duration
Unit Cost (#)
Total

1
Breeder Stocks
Boar (Male)
1
1
35,000.00
35,000.00

Sow (Female Gilt)
5
1
30,000.00
150,000.00

Transportation
1
1
50,000.00
50,000.00

Total cost Estimate for the Breeder Stocks
235,000.00

S/N
Item
Descriptions
Quantities
Duration
Unit Cost (#)
Total

2
Feeds and Medication
Pig Grower Mash
30
20
1,000.00
600,000.00

Flushing Feed
10
20
1,500.00
300,000.00

Creep Feed
10
20
1,650.00
330,000.00

Cost Estimate On Feeding
1,230,000.00

S/N
Item
Descriptions
Quantities
Duration
Unit Cost (#)
Total

3
Medication
Drugs
6
20
1,000.00
120,000.00

4
Staff Salary
Attendance/ Security
2
20
10,000.00
400,000.00

Cost Estimate On Medication and Staff
520,000.00

TOTAL ESTIMATED PRODUCTION COST
1,985,000.00

From the above table of the estimated cost of production a total of N1, 985,000 is required for a period of twenty months during which the total value of the pigs on the farm is estimated at N3,422,000.00. Providing a marginal profit of N1, 437,000.00. It should be noted that the above production cost excludes the capital cost items like land, building, pen and etc.

Pig Management for Improved Profitability
The projections above show that pig investment has higher tendency of quick returns on investment with a very low risk involvement and readily available markets across the nation.
With right management the projection above can be easily achievable in fact that is the average target, is expected to go beyond the target above with good management
There are four basic management principles every prospective pig farmer must practice for an optimized profitability;
The Pig Environment Management Principle
The Feeds and Feedings Management Principle
The Choice Of Starter Stock
The Health of the Pig Management Principle

Pig Housing Management
Pig needs a living environment that is conductive, comfortable, clean, well ventilated and spacious environment for an optimal productivities and profitability.
To practices profitable pig housing management principle, follow the following tips regularly;
Regularly remove the faeces from the floor of the pig house every day
Wash the area thoroughly with high powered water horse
Apply right quantity and right type of disinfectant on the ground and the wall of the pig house
Give a right space for the pigs in their pen. The space depends on the type of the age of the pig;

Sow/Boar – 2m2/pig with 15-20/Pen
Weaners – 0.2m2/pig with 8-10/Pen
Fatteners – 0.85m 2/Pig with 8-10/Pen
Gilts — 0.85m2/Pig with 4-6/Pen

Have a shoe bath at the entering of the house; make sure shoes are washed with disinfectant before entering the pig house. You could be introducing your pigs to some infection.
Make sure the house environment is cool and ensure clean supply of good water always.
Reduce drought in the pig pen
Reduce heat stress to a very barest minimum; excessive heat plays a great negative effect on profitable pig production.

Flock Management
Birth to Weaning
A successful caretaker understands that newborn piglets have certain physical characteristics which make them very reliant on proper management and care. Piglets are born without any antibody protection, their bodies contain fat energy for about one day of life, and they cannot regulate internal body temperature well until they are a few days old. Thus, anything that may lead to a reduction in milk production or consumption, such as chilling or exposure to disease organisms, compromises the health and well-being of newborn piglets.
Piglets born alive fall into two broad categories—normal and disadvantaged. It is important to recognize the difference between normal and disadvantaged piglets so appropriate assistance can be provided. Normal piglets will be born quickly, get on their feet within a minute or two and be suckling in about 15 minutes. They move from teat to teat, taking a disproportionately large share of the most concentrated, immunoglobulin-rich colostrum. If the sow is a good mother and the farrowing environment is adequate, normal piglets thrive without much help from the caretaker.
Disadvantaged piglets are ones weakened by the rigors of the birth process, are lightweight, have a congenital defect(s), are slow reaching the udder, or are chilled. Piglets weakened during the birth process include those that were oxygendeprived but not killed, “apparent” stillbirths that were revived, and piglets experiencing excessive physical trauma. The longer a sow takes to farrow the greater the chance these problems will appear. Lightweight piglets, especially those weighing less than 2.75lb at birth, are much less likely to survive to weaning than heavier piglets. Disadvantaged piglets are also slow in getting on their feet and to the udder. Their weakened state compromises their ability to compete with stronger, normal litter mates for access to teats during the first hours after birth. This reduces their intake of colostrum. Chilled piglets often experience a lower core body temperature which makes them susceptible to death.
Colostrum Intake
The first milk, colostrum, is rich in disease-preventing immunogloblins; the very first colostrum is the richest and best, because the quality of colostrum declines over time. Getting a good dose of colostrum, especially from the piglet’s dam, is probably the single most important factor related to a piglet’s survival and long-term health. Strong, early-born piglets get to the udder hours before their later-born litter mates and go from teat to teat taking the best colostrum. Thus, disadvantaged piglets often need assistance to obtain enough colostrum. Below are some methods to ensure piglets obtain an adequate dose of colostrum.
Crossfostering
The lowest piglet mortality is observed in high birthweight litters with low within-litter piglet weight variation. Crossfostering is the most effective way to reduce within-litter piglet weight variation. The primary purposes of crossfostering is to reduce the weight variation within the litter and to more evenly match the number of piglets with the sow’s ability to raise them (determined by the number of functional teats).
Processing Piglets
Processing piglets includes clipping teeth, clipping and treating the umbilical cord, iron administration, tail docking, identification, treating splaylegged piglets, providing supplemental nutrients, and castration. These skills can be performed in different ways and in the sequence of personal preference. Some producers elect not to perform all these procedures, or they prefer to delay some of them for three to four days to reduce stress on the very fragile one-day-old piglet.
Needle Teeth Clipping

The newborn piglet has eight needle teeth, sometimes referred to as wolf teeth, located on the sides of the upper and lower jaws. Many producers clip these within 24 hours after birth to reduce the chance piglets will lacerate each other and/or the sow’s udder. Some producers have stopped teeth clipping entirely while others do it as needed and they have not observed any serious problems. It seems less necessary to clip teeth of piglets nursing well-milking sows. However, in cases when sows are not milking well, or if greasy pig disease is a problem, teeth clipping appears necessary for optimum results.
Use sharp cutters without nicks in the blades. Otherwise, teeth will be crushed, which could lead to infection
 Cut away one-half of the tooth. Do not remove the entire tooth and avoid crushing or breaking it. Otherwise, an infection is possible or the piglet may not nurse well. Avoid cutting the piglet’s gum or tongue. This will likely make it difficult for the piglet to nurse.
 Cut the teeth off flat and not at an angle. Piglets are not as apt to cause skin injuries when they fight if the teeth are cut off flat. Wear glasses or goggles to protect your eyes from
flying pieces of teeth.
Hold the piglet and place sterilized side cutters over both the lower needle teeth on one side of the mouth with the flat side of the cutter to the gum line. Place the side cutters parallel to the gum, and cut off one-half of the two lower teeth at once
Tail Docking

The undocked tail is a very convenient target for tail biting or cannibalism. This leads to injury and possibly infection. To reduce tail biting, dock (or cut off) the tail of newborn piglets within about 24 hours after birth.
Dock the tail about one inch (or width of your thumb) from the place where the tail joins the body of the piglet (Figure 6). Cutting the tail too short could interfere with muscle activity around the anus later in the piglet’s life and could be an aggravating factor in rectal prolapse or rear leg paralysis. If too much tail is left, tail biting might still occur. Occasionally, a tail will bleed excessively. If this occurs, tie it off using the same method as for umbilical cords.
Use sterilized side cutters (most commonly used), a chicken debeaker, or a special heated cutter to cauterize the cut tai
Supplemental Iron
Iron is necessary to prevent anemia in piglets. Iron deficiency anemia develops rapidly in nursing piglets because of low iron reserves in the newborn piglet, the low iron in sow’s colostrum and milk, the lack of contact with iron in the soil, and the rapid growth rate of piglets. With no access to soil, iron deficiency anemia may result within 7-10 days after birth.
Iron can be administered either by injection or orally. Injection is preferred because iron given orally is not as well absorbed by piglets, thus reducing the quantity of iron that reaches critical tissues. Oral iron also may predispose some piglets to enteric disease (scour) problems, because iron is a necessary nutrient for the growth of microorganisms in the piglet’s digestive tract. In addition, oral iron may not be absorbed in piglets with diarrhea.
Administer iron to piglets while they are one to three days old. Give piglets 200mg of iron either as one injection while they are one to three days old or in two-100 mg injections—one between one and three days of age and again at weaning. Injectable iron products are available in both the 100 and 200mg of iron/ml concentrations. Read the label carefully to learn the iron concentration of the product you are using. Do not overdose, as too much iron can be toxic.

Using a clean syringe, withdraw iron solution from its container, using a 14 or 16 gauge (large diameter) needle which is left inserted in bottle. The idea is to avoid using a contaminated needle to draw iron from the bottle. Otherwise, foreign matter and pathogens will likely be introduced into the bottle. Some producers decide to change needles after they have finished giving iron injections to each litter. In this case, it is not necessary to use a different needle to draw iron from the bottle.
After filling the syringe, use an 18-20 gauge, 5/8 to 1/2 inch needle to inject iron into the piglet’s muscle. If there are air bubbles in the syringe, point the needle up, tap the syringe and push the air out. Inject iron into the neck muscle just off the midline (Figure 7). Iron should not be injected into the ham. The injection should be given in the neck because of possible sciatic nerve damage, scarring, and also, because of residual iron stain in the carcass of market hogs if it is given in the ham. If the injection site is dirty, wipe it clean with an antiseptic before injecting. Be careful not to inject into the spinal area.
Injecting. Be careful not to inject into the spinal area. Pull or roll back the skin with your finger or bend the piglet’s neck sideways prior to inserting the needle. Insert the needle perpendicular to site and inject. If you have pulled or rolled the skin back or bent the piglet’s neck to tighten the skin properly, when the needle is withdrawn, the skin will help seal the injection site and runback will be minimal. Consider placing a finger on the site momentarily to help prevent or reduce runback if necessary. Be sure to inject the iron into the muscle, not just beneath the skin.
For convenience, some producers mix various injectables together with iron and inject the solution into piglets while they are processed. This practice is not recommended unless prescribed by a veterinarian, because it is possible that the products could be rendered ineffective and possibly toxic to piglets.
Piglet Identification

In some pork producing operations, it is important that piglets be permanently identified at birth. Options for permanent identification included ear notching or tattooing. Ear notching is the more common method. Each piglet must have a unique ear notch or tattoo in seedstock herds because it is a requirement for pedigree and performance records.
Castration
Castration, the surgical removal of the two testicles, is a routine management practice for male piglets destined for slaughter. The testicles produce sperm and the male hormone, testosterone. Pork from boars, or uncastrated male piglets at slaughter weight, may have an odor during cooking that is very offensive to many people. This is called a “boar odor” or a “boar taint”.
There are various ways to castrate piglets. The position of the animal during surgery and the method and degree of restraint are dictated by the age and size of the animal. The best time to castrate a piglet is when it is four to 14 days of age. Young piglets are easier to hold or restrain, bleed less from surgery, and have antibody protection from the sow’s colostrum and milk. Piglets can be successfully castrated when they are less than four days old; however, one of the major disadvantages of castrating very young piglets is that scrotal hernias are more difficult to detect and the testicles may not have descended.
Examine each piglet carefully before castrating to identify those with a scrotal hernia. A piglet with a scrotal hernia has a loop of intestine in its scrotum. Hold the piglet upright so the scrotum is down to see if the scrotum is uniform in size, or hold the piglet with its head down and squeeze the back legs together to lift the testicles. If there is an enlargement in one or both halves of the scrotum, the piglet probably has a hernia. Do not castrate the piglet unless you are trained to repair hernias. The piglet’s intestines will be forced through the incision. Sometimes the testicle is removed before a scrotal hernia is discovered. If this happens, the herniation must be repaired by suturing immediately. Most scrotal hernias are genetic in origin. Do not keep replacement animals from any litter in which one or more piglets was herniated.
If one or both testicles are not found, the piglet may be a cryptorchid. This means that the testicle(s) failed to descend through the inguinal canal from the abdomen during development. When this condition is noticed, ear notch or mark the piglet and make a record of it. Often, the testicle(s) will descend to a normal position as the piglet grows. The piglet should be castrated after the testicle presents itself. If one testicle has descended at the time of castration, it should be removed. Use either a surgical knife or side cutter to castrate. The surgical knife can be either a #12 hooked blade or straight blade. The instrument of choice must be sharp and disinfected. If the scrotum is dirty, clean it and surrounding area with a cotton swab soaked in a mild disinfectant.
Castration Methods for One Person Using a Knif

Hold the piglet by both hind legs with its head down. Push up on both testicles and make an incision through the skin toward the tail (Figure 10). Be sure to cut low in the scrotal sac to ensure good drainage. It does not matter if you cut through the white membrane or not. Pop the testicles through the incision and pull on them slightly. Pull each testicle out pressing your thumb against the pelvis of the piglet. Use of your thumb is very important to ensure the cord will break off at the point of your thumb and not from deeper inside the piglet’s body. Otherwise, you may cause a hernia.
Alternatively, place the piglet’s head between your legs after you have made the incisions as described above, grab each testicle and cut the cord close to the incision with a scraping motion. Also, cut any cord or tissue protruding from the incision and spray the wound with an antiseptic.
Castration Method for One Person Using Side Cutters

This technique is best performed on piglets between four and 10 days of age. There is little or no bleeding with this method. Hold the piglet between your legs with the belly outward. Use your index finger, or whichever is comfortable to use, to push up on one testicle to make it more pronounced. The resulting fold of skin is where the incision is made (Figure 11a). Position disinfected side cutters about two thirds of the way into the fold and make a cut directly through the scrotal tissue (right of the midline). Make a similar incision through the scrotal tissue, but to the left of the midline. Pop the testicles out through the incisions by pinching your thumb and index finger together (Figure 11b).
Press very firmly with your index finger against the pelvis of the piglet in front of the scrotum and pull the testicles out with the side cutters (Figure 11c). Use of your index finger is very important to ensure the cord will break off at the point of your index finger and not from deeper inside the piglet’s body. Otherwise, you may cause a hernia. Care is taken to avoid cutting through the cords beneath the testicle. Remove any loose cord tissue left outside the incision. Nothing but the disinfected side cutters touches the exposed tissue. Spray the wound with an antiseptic.
Castration Method for Two People Using a Knife

One person holds the piglet by the rear legs while another does the castrating. With one hand, tighten the skin over the scrotum to help expose the testicle and the site for the incision. With the castration knife, make two incisions about as long as the testicles near the center of each (Figure 12a ). Cut deeply enough to go through the outside body skin. It does not matter whether you cut through the white membrane (tunica vaginalis), which surrounds the testicle, or not. Squeeze, or pop, the testicles through the incision (Figure 12b ). Enlarge the incision slightly at the end closest to the tail if the testicle will not pop out.
Pull out the end of the testicle which is toward the tail at a right angle to the length of the body and cut the cord close to the incision (Figure 12c). Do not pull straight up on the testicle. Repeat the procedure for the second testicle. Spray the wound with an antiseptic.
Post-Castration Care
Observe castrated animals for excess bleeding or the presence of tissue or intestines (hernia). Apply pressure to the wound for about two minutes to stop any bleeding. Cut off any cord that may be protruding from the incision as this may serve as a wick for infection, but make sure it is not intestine.
If intestines protrude and they are black or torn, it is usually best to euthanize the piglet. If the problem was recognized promptly after the intestines came out, it is possible to save the piglet. First, gently clean the intestines with clean, warm water containing a surgical disinfectant, and push them back through the opening holding the piglet’s head down by its rear legs. Close up by suturing the tunica vaginalis (white membrane which surrounds the testicle). If a skilled professional is not available to suture the tunica vaginalis, simply suture the castration incision closed to allow time for a skilled surgeon to repair the hernia properly a few hours later. If a skilled surgeon is not available in a few hours, the piglet should be euthanized. It is much easier to replace the intestines if the tunica vaginalis covering the testicle is not removed during castration. Administer an antibiotic after surgery.

Feeds and feeding Management
Human and animals depend on food nutrients for the process of life. Of the basic needs of animals and humanity, none is more important than food. The important of feed in livestock production can be visualized from the facts that feed accounts 65-75% of the cost producing pork.
Faulty feed and feeling have also been implicated in infant mortality, reduced growth and product condemnation in pig production. Therefore, good feed and feeding is normally used to augment breeding, health and management of pigs.
This class is not to be considered as an all-inclusive on the subject of pig nutrition but, an attempt to provide better understanding of modern scientific and profitable feeding of pigs. Therefore a good working knowledge of pig feeds and feedings based on scientific/nutritional principles is considered to be compulsory for all pig farmers under the present day circumstances.

One of the primary purposes of keeping pigs is to transform feedstuffs, usually (but not necessarily) not wanted by man into high quality meat, in this role, the pig acts like a refinery. The efficiency, with which animals refine the feedstuffs, depends on the ages and the manner in which the feedstuffs are put together.

The aim of the pig feed manufacturers is to supply animals with feeds whose nutrients can be used by the animal when made available in suitable form to its cells, organs and tissue. In performing this function, the feed manufacturer is expected to be guided by the principles least cost production of the livestock feeds, i.e to get a feed that will make for maximum production of quality producer per unit of feed consumed at the least possible cost. The pig feed manufacturer is a central business in the pig industry and is responsible for the nutritional wellbeing of the different stages of the pig animal without which they will also be out of business.

Feed Nutrients are classified according to their functions. The larger categories being major or macro while the smaller minor or micro.
THE SIX MACRO/MAJOR NUTRIENTS:-

  1. Water
  2. Protein – Amino Acids – Quality protein
  3. Carbohydrate
  4. Lipids (fats & oils)
  5. Mineral salts
  6. Vitamins
    A. WATER: Simply defined as the universal solvent which is made up of hydrogen and oxygen at 2 to 1 ratio respectively (H2O). it plays some very important roles to both plants and animals life process. Water is so vital that no living organism can service without.

B. PROTEIN
The main nitrogenous, complex organic compound, made up of amino acids which are needed by every living animal. It is the basic structural material from which all body tissues are formed. These includes not only muscles nerves, skin, connective tissues and vital organs but, also, the blood cells as well as the animal’s hair hoof, horns etc. protein provides the basic or initial cellular matrix within which the bone mineral matter is deposited obviously cellular matrix within which the bone mineral matter is deposited obviously then, protein is essential for animal growth as well as for fetal development.
PLANT ORIGIN SOURCES OF PROTEIN:

  1. Soya bean:- Usually cooked, fried or roasted as (heat destroys the poison in beans), dried after cooking and grounded to meal.
  2. Cotton seed cake:- Grounded and mixed to other components of ration.
  3. Sun flower seed meal:- Can be fed wholesome or after oil extraction.
  4. Ground nut cake:- Grounded and mixed to other components of ration.
  5. Benni seed:- Can be fed whole or after oil extraction.
  6. Palm camel:- Grounded and mixed to other components of ration.
    ANIMAL ORIGIN SOURCES OF PROTEIN
  7. Dried skimmed milk:- Added directly to other components of feeds.
  8. Tankage:- By product of meat industry, similar to meat and bone meal but, contained more meat in ratio to bones. Is cooked, dried and grounded to meal.
  9. Fish meal: Fish and fish by-products. Cooked, dried and grounded to meal.
  10. Meat and Bone meal:- similar to tankage but, this contains more bone than meat. Cooked, dried and grounded to meal.
  11. Blood meal:- Co-coagulated blood from slaughter houses and processing industries. Cooked, dried and grounded to meal.

C.CARBOHYDRATE
The name carbohydrate came into existence as the nutrient is a combination of carbon, Hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrate is highly important in livestock feeding as they are the primary source of energy and heat.
Production, over seventy percent (70%) of the plant dry matter is made up of carbohydrate. The group of nutrients that made up carbohydrate include the sugars which are relatively simple organic compound and also starch, cellulose and others that are more complex in nature. The sugars and starch are the simplest groups which are readily available and easily digested

D. LIPIDS (Fats & Oils)
Basically fats and oils are having the same chemical composition and properties except that oils are liquids and fats are solid at room or ordinary temperature. They are made up of the same basic elements as in carbohydrate but, in different proportions of carbon and hydrogen being greater in lipids than in carbohydrate, as such lipids furnished 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrate, per given unit weight. So, lipids have a corresponding higher value per unit weight as food for livestock.
Fat is simply the converted and deposited un-used energy within the body tissues. The primary requirement for fat formation is energy feeds which may come from any of several forms of food energy such as starch, sugars, cellulose, protein and fat itself.
F. MINERALS
The mineral matter for most part includes in-organic substances of feed nutrient. The nutrients is essential in growth, development, production and general health. This nutrient is very sensitive as some are toxic (poisonous) when fed in excess. Therefore they should be fed in definite proportions and precise amounts
G. VITAMINS
These are organic substances required by all living organisms in vey small amounts for regulating various body processes towards normal health, growth production, reproduction and formation of blood cells etc.
Vitamins are found in all feed nutrients at varying Quantities. They are not directly utilized as the rest other nutrients, rather they form most part work as catalysts, stimulating reactions towards healthy metabolic processes.

Pig Feed Classes;
Feeds for pig can generally be classified as:
(a) Creep
These are fed to very young pig, usually between birth and weaning. The digestive enzyme profile of creeps is such that chymosin and lactase predominate because milk is the main diet. Pepsin, trypsin. Amylase and lipases for digesting complex feed materials are at low levels. Secondly, pigs in this class are growing very actively in all tissues and are very susceptible to a host of diseases and digestive problems that includes scouring.
(b) Weaner
This is fed to piglets immediate post-weaning period. Weaners are usually still under the stress of being separated from their mother. Like creeps, they have tissues and organs that are actively growing. However, they are gradually getting used to the environment and enzymes for the digestion of milk have reduced drastically while enzymes for handling complex feed materials are on the increase
(c) Grower
Grower feeds are fed to growing piglets. These are animals whose enzyme profile has been well stabilized. At the beginning of this stage, animals are laying down a lot of proteinaceous tissues, but at the end, there is transition from the growing of proteinaceous tissues to fat deposition. The pigs are also well adapted to their health environment.
Growers feed can be fed ad libitum if the fibre content is high or the animals are at the beginning of the growing period. At end of the growing period, feed restriction at 80 – 90% at libitum should be introduced.
(d) Fattener
Fattener diets are given to pigs that are being prepared for market. At this stage, fat deposition is predominant. The attempt here is to feed the animal to produce lean carcass or rarely in pigs more fat as is the case when bacon/lard production is the objective. The typical fattener feed is characterized by:
i. Low to medium protein content (13 – 15%)
ii. Medium to high energy content
iii. High level of crude fibre.
iv. Palatability/acceptability is not too much a problem.
v. Trace minerals and vitamins could be moderately low.
vi. Freedom from toxic factors.
Fattener diet should not be fed ad libitumFor pigs, restriction may be as low as 60 -65% ad libitum
(e) Breeder
These are fed to pigs that are physiologically mature for reproductive purposes. Breeder diet can be used during mating, conception and gestation.
The typical breeder diet is largely similar to that of fatteners but attempts are made to prevent the pigs from laying down excessive fat, which will hamper reproductive efficiency. Thus the breeder diets have:
i. Medium protein level
ii. Medium to high energy content
iii. Relatively high fibre level
iv. No toxic or anti-nutritional factors.
Unlike fattener diet, the breeder diet must be high in both trace minerals and vitamins. In practice, a special quality feed is allowed for the breeder during the period preceding breeding. This practice is called flushing.
The purpose of flushing is to allow the sow to come on heat more promptly, increase the number of egg production and increase pig birth by 15 – 30%.
(f) Lactation
Lactation diets are fed to pigs in post-partum period up to the time of weaning their piglets. These pigs need feed not only for their body maintenance, but also for milk production which is high in protein, fat and minerals.
Lactating pigs should be given rations to cover their requirement for maintenance and milk production. For lactating sows, the rule of thumb is to provide 2kg for the sow’s maintenance and 0.2 – 0.45kg for every piglet in the litter.

TABLE 2.1: NUTRIENTS REQUIREMENT OF ANIMALS
Pig
Energy/(kcal/kg)
Protein (%)
Ca (%)
P (%)

Creep
Grower
Fattener
Gestation
Lactating

3,500
3,000
2,600
2,200
2,800
24
18
16
14
15
0.9
0.6
0.5
0.75
0.75
0.74
0.45
0.40
0.50
0.50

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF COMMON TROPICAL FEEDSTUFF
FEEDSTUFF
CP
%
EE
%
CF
%
Ash
%
TDN
%
ME Kcal/kg
Swine Poulty

Acha
Acha Hay
Amaranthus SP
Bagasse
Baobab Leaf
Bambara Nut
7.42
5.36
28.44
1.7
12.3
21.14
1.3
1.66
3.57
1.5
3.10
6.54
0.35
30.08
17.01
45
9.7
5.08
2.74
7.04
15.5
2.5
9.6
3.78
12.76

35.78









3939




Banana
Banana Leaf
Blood Meal
Brewers Dried Grains
Carrot (Dry)
Cashew Nuts
4.5
14.22
77.35
27.90
10.1
20.0
0.8

0.53
7.4
1.6
38.0
2.1
19.68
1.46
11.7
9.2
0.8
3.3
13.50
4.4
4.8
10.1
3.3
74.0

60.0
78.0
82.0



927
2240
3399



2845
2513

2860

Cocoyam Meal (Unpeeled)
Cocoyam (peeled)
Cocoyam peels
Cotton Seed (whole)
Cotton Seed Meal (Undel)
Cotton Seed Meal (Deli)
8.66
7.57
9.56
20.0
24.9
41.0
0.77
0.33
2.05
21.1
6.10
1.5
2.38
1.63
32.02
18.0
28.0
12.5
4.83
4.04



6.3



98.0

63.0





2596



3369
2079
1892

Cowpea Seed
Cowpea Hay
Cowpea Husk
Desmodium
Dorowa (Locust Bean Pulp)
Fat (Animal)
24.67
18.20
12.9
15.5
3.5
0.0
2.46
1.83
0.65

0.78
99.4
1.81
27.39
33.40
29.3
11.0

3.78
6.77









19.50





6380




2420
8140

Kapok Cake (silk Cotton Seed Cake)
African Locust Bean Seed
Maize
Maize Bran
Maize Cob
Malt sprouts (Dried)

31.3
30.38
8.9
11.9
2.3
25.0

8.1
20.30
4.0
1.7
0.4
0.12

29.9
8.82
2.7
10.5
35.0
14.0

7.3
5.38
1.3
0.8
1.5
6.5



80.0
75.2
42.0
6.3





305

2079

3432

528

Mango seed Kemal
Manure (Cage Layer)
Manure (Deep Litter)
Manure (Cattle)
Manure, Rabbit
Millet
6.5
28.3
25.3
12.7
20.3
11.5
11.0
1.7
2.3
2.5
1.40
3.6
4.0
14.9
16.6
37.5
47.4
6.5
2.2
28.0
14.1
7.6
6.2
0.30
77.1
5.2

4.5

3.2





69.0

1400
1320


2881

Potato (Sweet)
Potato Meal (Irish)
Rice Bran
Rice Offal
Rubber Seed Meal
Sesame Seed
5.36
10.6
13.0
6.0
43.10
24.4
0.54
0.30
15.0
5.6
10.12
49.9
0.33
2.3
12.0
3.3
4.4
11.2
21
4.7
10.0
19.1
3.1
5.9
77.5

67
33.0

104.0


3028





1892
1319
2550
4971

Sesame Meal (Expeller)
Sorghum (Guinea Com)
Sorghum Stover
Sorghum, Full Fat
Soybean Meal
Sugar
42.0
11.0
5.3
38.0
44.0

7.0
2.8

18.0
3.5

6.5
2.0
32.6
5.0
6.5

12.0
1.7
6.6
4.6
6.0

70.0
71.0
48.0
85.0
78.0

2560
3256

3440
2990

2640
27

3000
2420
3674

Termite, fried
Tomato Dried
Tomato Leave and Stem
Tridax Procumbens
Urea, 45% N
Wheat
Wheat Bran
31.8
21.0
26.4
15.47
280.0
13.5
15.61
42.6
10.0

4.33

1.9
5.14
5.2
25.0
26.6
24.36

3.0
10.0
5.1
6.0
46.7
17.04

2.0
6.4





76.0
62.0





3220
2320

1760



3086
1256

Yam (Unpeeled)
Yam (Peeled)
Yam (Peels)
Yam (Water, Unpeeled)
Yam (Water Peeled)
Yam (Peels)
5.87
4.42
11.21
8.10
7.26
11.73
0.16
0.34
1.17
0.82
0.58
1.01
2.38
1.45
9.47
2.59
2.29
6.56
4.3
2.51
9.76
5.16

9.50

















Source: Aduku, 1993

PIG FEED FORMULATION
There are basically three steps in feed manufacturing;

  1. The first step is to have information on the class of pigs that will use the feed
  2. The second step is to have information on the feedstuffs that are available,
  3. The final step is feed formulation.
    Feed is formulated based on the ingredients that are available and not what you will be able to get. Too often people formulate their feed before procuring the feedstuffs only to discover that some of the feedstuffs are not available. Hence the feed formulation has to be modified.
    The objective of feed formulation is to put together ingredients that will supply the nutrients pigs need for maintenance, growth, reproduction, lactation, etc as the case may be. A feed that meetsthe pig’s requirements is said to be balance. The best feed is not necessarily the best option for the farmer. An excellent but costly feed will enhance good growth but the cost/unit of production of the feed may make it uneconomical. On the other hand the farmer may opt for the cheapest feed, only to discover that it may not allow for optimum production. Cost/Unit of production is hence the best determinant of what constitutes the best feed for the pig.

In feed formulation, it is therefore necessary to weight the options of the feed formula bases on the ingredients that are available. The nutrient composition and cost of the ingredients should be examined before they are used.
Feeds are formulated based on table values of ingredients nutrients composition (table) and biological information about their use.
The ingredients are used on “as feed” basic which assumes that the ingredients have 88-92% dry matter. Where necessary, feed can be formulated on dry matter basis in which case all the ingredients have to be converted to their moisture free equivalent.

Feeds to be manufactured are first formulated on a percentage basis. The percentages are then converted to quantitative weights depending on the total weight of feeds to be produced.
There are several methods of feed formulation that are available to the pig feed manufacturer.
PEARSON’S SQUARE METHOD
This assumes a situation where there are a few feedstuffs to be used. Only one nutrient (usually protein) receives major attention with no consideration given to the other nutrients.
Example: Suppose you have maize and soybean meal and you want to mix diet for day old broilers.
Steps:
a. We know that creep feed need 23-24% protein
b. Draw a square and insert this protein requirement in the middle
c. Place maize with its 8.9% crude protein on the upper left corner and soybean meal with its 44% crude protein at the lower left corner.
d. Subtract diagonally across the square (the smaller number from the larger one) and record the difference of the corners on the right hand side (44-23 = 21, 23-89 = 14.1) the number of the upper right corner gives the parts or proportion of maize by weight while the number at the lower right corner gives the parts or proportion of soybean by weight that will provide a feed with required 23% crude protein.

e. Add the figures at the right hand corners. The answer gives you the total of the feed by weight (21 + 14.1) = 35.1
f. The figures at the right hand corners can now be expressed as a proportion or percentage of (e) as follows
Proportion of maize = 21 x 100 = 59.83%
35.1
Proportion of soybean meal 14.1 x 100 = 40.11%
35.1 100%
g. To Prove:
0.5983 X 8.9 =5.325
0.4017 X 44 = 17.675
23.00%

TRIAL – AND ERROR METHOD
Trial and error method is for complex pig feed formulation. In formulating these complex diets, the target is still to meet the animal’s nutrient requirement (table 1). The combination and levels of feedstuffs to be used is determined by the ingredients procured and their proximate composition (table 2) the final formula is carried at by trial and error.
In balancing such feeds, the attempt is first to satisfy the protein (including amino acid) requirement of the animal, before the energy. Also, it is necessary to balance for phosphorus before calcium. In formulating for swine, it is normally accepted that only about 33% of the total plant phosphorus are available, because 60 – 75% of the phosphorus in plants is organically bound in the form of phytase and monogastric animals lack phytase enzyme to digest the complex. Thus where available phosphorus of an ingredient of plant origin is not state, the percent total phosphorus should be divided by 3 and the value obtained used in calculating available phosphorus.
The levels of mineral and vitamin premix are usually fixed, based on manufacturer’s recommendation, while common salt which supplies sodium and chlorine is added at 0.25 – 0.3% inclusion level. The formulator then adds up the percentages of ingredients used. Ideally, they should add up to 100%. If they do, further adjustments will be made in the level of the ingredients to be used. In making these adjustments, the attempt is to make the feed nutritionally balanced and economical.
In feed formulating, the nutrient contributions by each feedstuff are added up to meet the target (requirement).
Example:
Assume that a piglet diet is made up of maize 50% soybean, meal 30% wheat offal 15% palm oil 2%. Bone meal 1.5%, oyster shell 1% salt 0.25% and premix 0.25%.
To calculate the nutrients contributed by the feedstuffs to this hypothetical diets, the formulator multiples the coefficient of the percentage inclusion level of the feedstuff by the percentage of the nutrients if contains based on table values (table at the back). Thus in the above example,
Maize:
Protein: 50 x 8.9 = 4.43%
100
Energy: 50 x 3432 = 1716 Kcal/kg
100
Calcium: 50 x 0.02 = 0.001%
100
Phosphorus: 0.5 X 0.10 = 0.05
Soybean Meal:
Protein: 30 x 44 = 13.2%
100
Energy: 30 x 2420 = 726 Kcal/kg
100
Calcium: 30 x 0.20 = 0.006%
100
Phosphorus: 30 x 0.20 = 0.06
100
Wheat Offal:
Protein: 15 x 15.61 = 2.34%
100
Energy: 15 x 1256 = 198.4 Kcal/kg
100
Calcium: 15 x 0.140 = 0.002%
100
Phosphorus 15 x 0.40 = 0.06%
100
Palm Oil:
Protein: 2 x 0 = 0%
100
Energy: 2 x 8184 = 163.7 Kcal/kg
100
Calcium: 2 x 0 = 0%
100
Phosphorus: 2 x 0 = 0%
100
Bone Meal:
Protein: 1.5 x 0 = 0%
100
Energy: 1.5 x 0 = 0 Kcal/kg
100
Calcium: 1.5 x 29.8 = 0.447%
100
Phosphorus: 1.5 x 12.9 = 0.1935%
100
Oyster Shell:
Protein: 0.5 x 0 = 0%
100
Energy: 0.5 x 0 = 0 Kcal/kg
100
Calcium: 0.5 x 38 = 0.19%
100

Total protein in the feed is the addition of protein contribution from all the ingredients. For the above hypothetical diet, that will be 4.45% from maize, 13.205 from soybean meal and 2.34% from wheat offal for a total of 19.99%. Corresponding values for energy, calcium and total phosphorus are 2804.1 Kcal/Kg, 0.77% and 0.34% respectively.

COMPUTER FORMULATION METHOD
In recent years, linear programming using the computer has been applied to feed formulation. In practice, the ingredients to be used, their prices and the nutrient composition are input into the computer. It is possible to put constraints (limits) on the level of a particular ingredient to be used. This is followed by the nutrient specifications of the desired diet. The computer then uses linear programming to find the combination of ingredients that meets the specification at the lowest cost. This is called LEAST COST FEED FORMULATION (LCFF).

  1. The Health Management
    Always look after the health state of your pigs, this is very important in pig profitability.
    When sow are pregnant they will need de-worm, Provide mange treatment before transferring them to the farrow pen.
    Over weighing could cause complication during delivery, reduce her feeding three days before farrowing. Healthy sow gives birth to healthy piglets.
    Remember to give the new piglet all their medication and vitamins. Farrowing attend to their health need immediately by cutting the naval cord and dip in iodine, clip their needle teeth and maintain a room temperature of 27-32OC, Make sure they get their first milk (Colostrum), Provide iron Supplement, after seven day of birth be sure to get them vaccinated against swine Erysipelas at seven weeks.
    Invest time and effort into their health and you will be good for it.

Thank You

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